Lavinian language

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Lavinian
Arditoćan Lavina
File:Lavinian language.png
An excerpt in Lavinian in the Tartessic script
Region Eastern Antraea (core urheimat modern east Tartessa
Ethnicity Lavinians
Status EXTINCT
Tartessic script
Geography
File:Map of Lavinian Confed.png

The Lavinian language was the classical language of the Lavinian civilization and the precursor to the modern Lavinic languages, the most widespread branch of the Antraean-Ardaic language family. Its preserved, written version depicted in this article, also known as High Lavinian (parrerde), is the language of trade and government among the disparate city-states of the Palatine Confederation.

Lavinian diverged from Valerian Ardaic roughly by 700 væ. From there, the language gradually acquired more Bazgrian traits, taking features and vocabulary from languages of conquered and neighboring cultures, particularly Cannonian) and Antarian.

Literature

Grammar

Nominal morphology

Lavinian is an agglutinate-ergative language. Compared to other branches of the Antraean family, Lavinian is rather conservative in maintaining the morphological qualities of its parent language, Exodus Ardaic. Lavinian, like Exodus Ardaic shares its tendency towards case-stacking, with a particular suffix-clitic order for nouns and verbs.Lavinian departs from it however with turning some of these morphemes into articles and adpositions depending on word, or merging some of these clitics together, making for a more simplified vernacular.

For example, the phrase Aseralećarć aćaleć kaydan

Aseralećarć aćaleć kaydan
Aser-l-eć-arć ać-l-eć kat-y[at]-dan
god-art.plu-erg-plu.-com.plu women-art.plu-erg.plu speak-cont.fut-3rd.plu

can be written as:

El asereć ma aćić kaydan
El aser-eć ton ać-eć kat-y[at]-dan
art.plu god-erg.plu. and women-erg.plu speak-cont.fut-3rd.plu

Lavinian also innovated the use of compound words, albeit under very specific conditions: a root compounded with another root is considered a derivational suffix (thus contracting it) and putting focus on the root that forms its semantic basis (ex. Evreles "republic", from evre "Lord" and ela "sister", with abstractive clitic -es. Lavinian doesn't utilize the "e-case" and has the associative case take up the role of the equative, likewise the comitative also takes up the role of the instrumentative. The Genitive and Absolutive case suffixes, especially in Late Lavinian was interchangeable to their corresponding clitics, articles and adpositions.

Case Singular Plural Corresponding Article
Absolutive
-[a]n (if root ends in cons.)
-l an, el
Ergative -eć
Genitive-Ablative
(of, in, at ...)
-te -teć te
Dative -pe -pać
Allative
(to ...)
-yan -yanć yan
Essive
(from ...)
-e -yeć yo
Instrumental
(with ...)
-kon -koć kon
Ablative-Instrumental
(through/by ...)
-sin -sanć[a]
Comitative
(together with ...)
-[s]ar -[s]arć
Associative-Equative
(as, like...)
-yo (con.)
-no (vow.)
-yoć
-noć
nes

Verb morphology

Vocabulary