Republics in Adia
Adia has had a long history with republican and democratic government. In Adian political theory, a Republic (Lavinian karθarion, pl. karθariones "domain of order", also mekhl, from Cannonian) mostly refers to a procedural or constitutional state where powers are vested to the covenant between state and people. In this regard, constitutional monarchies and kratocracies (sometimes called karθariones tassor, "judicial republics") in Adian parlance) are considered proper republics as Adia's prevailing political theory defines between concentration and usage of power.
A traditional republic tends to be conflated with an aristocracy or a theocratic government due to its ritualistic and procedural qualities ("constitutional rite"). It is related to the democratic state in regards to its focus on popular power, though the former is much more associated with Cirassian politics. Republicanism is the predominant government in the Conditary World, especially in Antraea and Hallegia.
One of the defining features of republican governments are the dual division of roles within the state, between a the magistracy (tassion) and a legislature (phanion/endirion). The republic's stability and cohesion hinges between the relationship of the magistrate and the concellariate. While the legislature represents the interests of the wider public, the magistracy governs that public by the laws that hold the state together. The magistracy thus serves as a tether of the people's will to ensure the survival of society and its cherished values. Recent examples, such as Victoriala, divide the magistracy further into a model more typical of earther branches of government, while Novatist states reject the division altogether, merging the roles of magistracy and legislature into one institution.
This does not always imply a more democratic or people-oriented configuration of state, however. Ancient republics are solely governed by constitutionally-ruling magisters (Tassosa), deriving their pator from the law agreed upon in covenant. In the historical context, the republic was simply established as a form of formal security arrangement. The state, thus, is meant only to uphold public order (hence karθarion) and to direct the people towards the common will. In some cases, this "solely procedural republic" reserves administrative office to a social class (i.e scholars or the military) with legislatures serving a solely consultative manner. Technocratic Hallegia and the Kontinovad are major examples of this.
The magistracy is the collective institution of appointed officers of the republic responsible for maintaining public order and the organized defense of the state. They enforce and interpret the law, oversee public utilities and infrastructure and represent the state in the interordinate scene. In some cases such as in early Novatist republics, the responsibility of legal enforcement is vested unto the legislature. In modern international relations, the magistrate with the highest seniority is considered sovereign or head of state.
Traditionally the magistracy—or at least, particular positions within it—hold pator (sovereign power), justified through their identification with the constitution (which itself represents the state). [...]
The Legislature (endirion, also phanion after the Cannonian assembly buildings) is a formal assembly that represents the people's interests within the system. Traditional theory considers legislatures as representative of the masses' side to the covenant of the state. A counterpoint to the pator of the Magistracy, modern republics consider legislatures as a leverage against tyranny and hegemony. [...]
- Main article: Mekhel
- Main article: Judicial republic
Also known as a "Classical Republic" due to the system's utilization in the Late Classical Era, the Judicial Republic is the primary structure that is used in Eastern Antraea and (in partial form) the Cassia. It involves the administrative oversight of Judges as the source of legal, and in turn institutional authority of the state.
The notion of legal authority being structurally paramount originally sprung out from the middle years of the Lavinian civilization, when the Tartessan State...
[The Duality of the Concellariate and the Magistrate]
Due to legal traditions being the basis of the Judicial Republic, terms based on judicial systems (Magisters, Courts, etc) tend to represent major institutional bases for the Judicial Republic.
[mancomunitat and adaptation by novatists]
- Main article: Scholarly republic
Scholarly Republics originally sprouted in the post-Imperial era as polities under the Matriarchate or formal institutions that serve within the monasteries of the Foriscian Covenants...
Knowledge as basis of authority
The Parakunion (Nolavine, "great commons") is a form of republic that is centered around the idea of the popular rule; the masses collectively hold pator. In place of a diarchy of magistracy and legislature, Novatists advocate for a delegated hierarchy of public and works councils that ultimately convene within its legislature as the sole and the uppermost echelon of state. The legislature is formally sovereign, in which magistrates that actually do administrative duties are selected from the legislature's elected delegates as voting members of their old office. It, in turn, implies an egalitarian, democratic system where the people are not simply represented in the state's decision-making process, but are open participants in it. In most practical senses, the Novatist republic is somewhat related or mirroring Judicial government, diverging only on the question of pator.
Originally formulated during the esoteric philosophical ferment of the 19th-20th centuries næ, the Novatists describe the parkunion as the "final evolution of the state", a revival of the First Confederation (in such that it's a centralized league of communities and states), albeit one that is receptive and vigilant to the Novatist ideals of openness, equality and rule of law.
In Novatist revolutionary theory, however, the immediate transition from a tyranny to parakunion is unfeasible due to the conditions that define the people's reason in the early stages of vanguardist rule. Thus, the vanguard must establish an "interregnum of enlightenment" (kara adravenara) in which the vanguard must guide the people towards a state of refined reason and responsibility deserving of the First Confederation's imperial glory.
Progressivism and Futurism
The concept of the parakunion was analyzed and adopted by Progressivists, and subsequently, Modernist thought. Unlike the Novatist notion of the State fully embodying the people, to the Modernist movement (and its later contemporaries), the primary goal of the state is to set the foundation and tether in which an open, socialistic and efficient society can be established or developed upon. This interpretation of the state has led to a technocracy.
Progressive republics are much more in common with the judicial rather than the enlightened on grounds of the powers of the branches of government. However, compared to the judicial republics, pator is actually held more by a class of scientific and philosophical experts. As classical republics, legislatures are more pragmatic advisors to the state, organizing various sectors of society, thus maintaining efficiency while keeping with a sort of popular sovereignty. In more democratic variants, the Technocratic magistracy competes with a Novatist-style legislature of equal standing, such as in the Modernist Cassia.